Quad Rugby, or Wheelchair Rugby as it is also called, is a sport with roots going back to wheelchair basketball and ice hockey, which is not surprising, since it was developed by three Canadians as a quadriplegic equivalent to wheelchair basketball. The sport was originally called Murderball due to its aggressive nature. It was changed to Quad Rugby in 1981 when it was introduced in the U.S. with the formation of the Wallbangers at the University of North Dakota.
In 1988, the United States Quad Rugby Association (USQRA) was formed to help regulate and promote the sport on both a national and international level. Quad Rugby has grown to become a global sport with more than forty-five organized teams in the United States and at least twenty five international teams from as far away as Australia, in addition to those in Canada.
WHO CAN PLAY?
Players may have various disabilities that preclude their play in able-bodied sport competition. Players must have a combination of upper and lower extremity impairment to be considered as eligible to participate. Most of the players have sustained cervical level spinal injuries and have some type of quadriplegia as a result. Players are given a classification number from one of seven classifications ranging from 0.5 - 3.5. The 0.5 player has the greatest impairment and is comparable to a C5 quadriplegic. Of those eligible to participate, the 3.5 player has the least impairment and is similar to a C7-8 incomplete quadriplegic. Both male and females are encouraged to play, and because of the classification process gender advantages don't exist. Female players and those over 45 are given a .5 point reduction. Those over 65 are given An additional .5 point reduction.
Four players from each team are allowed on the court at a time. Classifications of the four players on the court must total no more than 8.0 points at one time. A goal line at each end of the court measures eight meters. A key area extends from the goal line and is 1.75 meters deep. During the games team players pass or carry a volleyball, trying to advance into the opponent's half court and then crossing over the goal line with the ball in one player's possession. Only three defensive players are allowed in the key, and if a fourth enters, a penalty can be assessed or a goal awarded. An offensive player can only stay in the key area for ten seconds or a turnover will be assessed.
Games are four 8-minute quarters with 2 minutes break between periods and 5 minute halftime.
Four 30 second and two 60 second timeouts for each team, plus 1 extra for each overtime played.
One point is scored when the goal line is crossed by any two of the ballcarrier’s wheels.
10 Seconds: Players must dribble or pass or it’s a turnover.
12 Seconds: Ball must be advanced over half court or it’s a turnover.
10 Seconds: Ball must be inbounded or it’s a turnover.
40 Seconds: Teams must score after the ball is inbounded or it’s a turnover.
10 Seconds: Offensive player cannot be in the key longer or it’s a turnover.
Only three defenders are allowed in the key at one time or it’s a penalty.
Hitting an opposing player’s chair behind the axles (a spin) is a turnover or a penalty